# tiMe...

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Time…(a very strange thing)

Of course we all move forward in time every second of our lives. Newton thought time was absolute i.e. that it passed at the same rate regardless of anything. This simple common sense idea was believed for centuries…

Until in 1905 Albert Einstein came to the conclusion that time must be relative. The speed of light 186,000 miles per second doesn’t change if you are moving relative to it. No matter how fast or slow you are already moving you’ill always measure a beam of light as 186, 000 mps.

Since light speed is actually absolute space and time must be relative. Time can be slowed down by increasing the velocity. This means if you take a trip traveling very fast for a year you could return and find a century might have passed for everyone else. Less time would have passed from your point of view. This is the time dilation effect predicted by Einstein’s special theory of relativity. In 1971 atomic clocks proved Einstein had been right about time slowing down. As you move faster in space you move slower in time. If you could travel at light speed time would stop and faster than light would take you back in time…

TIME

You are in time and you experience it everyday of your life. It is weird the way people can't tell you exactly what time is without meantioning time or a scientific word meaning time. But do you want to know what time itself is?

THE LAWS OF PHYSICS DO NOT STATE DO NOT STATE THAT TIME TRAVEL IS IMPOSSIBLE!

By Paul Curran

THIS IS AN EXCITING FACT!

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE PHYSICS THAT PERMIT TIME TRAVEL

TIME TRAVEL TO THE FUTURE AT A FASTER RATE RELATIVE TO OTHERS HAS BEEN EXPERIMENTLY CONFIRMED TO BE POSSIBLE.THE TIME DILATION EFFECT IS REAL.TIME IS AFFECTED IN STRONG GRAVITATIONAL FIELDS AND AT HIGH SPEEDS.A BLACK HOLE COULD BE A TIME MACHINE!YOU COULD GET PULLED IN,TRAVEL ALONG A TYPE OF TUNNEL AND COME OUT THE OTHER END AT A DIFFERENT POINT IN SPACETIME.IF PARTICLES EXCEED THE SPEED OF LIGHT THEY WOULD MOVE BACKWARDS THROUGH TIME.ANTI-MATTER MIGHT EXIST AND TRAVEL BACK IN TIME.IF ADVANCED WAVES EXIST THEY WOULD CARRY THEIR ENERGY BACK IN TIME.EXPLORE THE ADVENTURE AND UNDERSTAND THE THEORETICAL PHYSICS.LEARN WHAT ALBERT EINSTEIN,STEPHEN HAWKING AND KIP THORNE SAID ABOUT TIME TRAVEL.EXPLORE THE AMAZING FACTS AND THEORIES AND DECIDE FOR YOURSELF IF YOU THINK IT WILL BE INVENTED.THERE ARE SEVERAL WAYS IT COULD BE POSSIBLE. THE IDEA OF TIME-TRAVEL STILL AMAZES ME.

WORK IN EINSTEINS' THEORIES SHOW THAT IT IS THEORETICAL POSSIBILITY.

IT MAY BE POSSIBLE BY

[CHAPTER 1]TRAVELLING AT HIGH SPEEDS

TIME TRAVEL TO THE FUTURE IS A REALITY

I HAVE BEEN INTERESTED IN THE IDEA OF TIME TRAVEL FOR YEARS.IT HAS BEEN A THRILL TO THINK ABOUT.I'VE STUDIED PART OF EINSTEINS' THEORIES OF SPECIAL AND GENERAL RELATIVITY.ALBERT EINSTEIN PREDICTED THAT TIME IS RELATIVE I.E.IT CAN BE SLOWED DOWN.

THE TIME DILATION EFFECT HAS BEEN EXPERIMENTALLY CONFIRMED.IT IS NOT JUST A THEORY.ACCURATE ATOMIC CLOCKS MOVING AT A HIGH SPEED SHOW LESS TIME HAS PASSED FOR THEM THAN AN ACCURATE CLOCK LEFT ON EARTH.

TIME SLOWS DOWN WHEN YOU ARE MOVING

COMPARED TO SOMEONE AT REST.THE TIME DILATION EFFECT CAN BE

USED TO TIME TRAVEL TO THE FUTURE.THIS EFFECT WAS PREDICTED IN THE THEORIES OF RELATIVITY.THE THEORY THAT TRAVELLING FAST DILATES TIME IS IN SPECIAL RELATIVITY WHICH WAS PUBLISHED IN 1905.THE SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY EXPLORES THE STRANGE EFFECTS THAT OCCUR AT HIGH SPEEDS.THIS MEANS THAT SOMEONE CAN TRAVEL TO THE FUTURE AT A FASTER RATE THAN OTHERS.IF YOU TRAVELLED INTO SPACE IN A ROCKET MOVING AT A HIGH SPEED AND LATER TURNED AROUND AND CAME BACK TO EARTH YOU WOULD FIND PEOPLE HAVE AGED MORE THAN YOU HAVE.IMAGINE COMING BACK AFTER A FEW DAYS OF TIME FOR YOU AND FINDING OUT ALL YOUR FRIENDS YOU LEFT BEHIND ARE NOW OLD.THE GUYS IN YOUR SCHOOL CLASS YOU CAN REMEMBER VERY CLEARLY IN THEIR SEVENTIES.YOU WOULD BARELY RECOGNIZE YOUR BEST FRIENDS IF THEY ARE STILL ALIVE IN THIS FUTURE.MAYBE THEY STILL BEHAVE LIKE THEY WERE WHEN YOU LAST SEEN THEM.MAYBE THEIR PERSONALITY HAS CHANGED COMPLETELY BY NOW.IMAGINE IF THE BOYS THAT USED TO WASTE TIME BY CARRYING ON HAD SUDDENLY FOR YOU BECOME RESPONSIBLE.THE GENERAL THEORY SAYS IN STRONG GRAVITATIONAL FIELDS TIME IS ALSO DILATED.IF TIME WAS NOT RELATIVE TO DIFFERENT OBSERVERS WOULD DISAGREE ABOUT THE AMOUNT OF TIME IT TAKES LIGHT TO GET FROM ONE PLACE TO ANOTHER I.E. THE SPEED OF LIGHT.THE SPEED OF LIGHT IS PRESENTLY BELIEVED TO BE THE SAME FOR ALL ON- LOOKERS NO MATTER WHAT SPEED THEY ARE ALREADY TRAVELING AT.THIS MEANS EVERYONE WILL MEASURE LIGHT TO BE TRAVELING AT THE SAME SPEED.WHEN YOU ARE TRAVELLING FAST YOUR SURROUNDINGS APPEAR SHORTER IN LENGHT THAN THEY OTHERWISE WOULD APPEAR.ON-LOOKERS WATCHING YOU WOULD SEE YOU I.E.YOUR TRANSPORT MACHINE, AS SHORTER THAN IT WAS WHEN IT WAS STILL.

[CHAPTER 2]WORMHOLES THEY ARE CONNECTIONS IN SPACETIME.THEY CAN PROVIDE QUICK TRANSPORT FROM ONE PLACE TO ANOTHER.THEY HAVE TWO MOUTHS CONNECTED TO DIFFERENT POINTS IN SPACETIME AND ARE THOUGHT TO BE SAFE TO TRAVEL THROUGH.IF YOU WENT IN ONE END YOU WOULD COME OUT THE OTHER END ALMOST INSTANCELY.THIS WOULD MEAN YOU COULD ARRIVE AT A CERTAIN LOCATION FASTER THAN LIGHT WOULD TAKE TO TRAVEL USING THE NORMAL WAY WITHOUT A WORMHOLE.ACCORDING TO ALBERT EINSTEIN IF YOU TRAVELLED FASTER THAN LIGHT YOU WOULD MOVE BACK IN TIME RELATIVE TO SOMEONE TRAVELLING BELOW THE SPEED OF LIGHT.THIS COULD MEAN YOU WILL BE GOING BACK TO THE PAST WHEN YOU ARRIVE AT THE OTHER END OF THE WORMHOLE! THEY

HAVE TWO MOUTHS AND CAN BE USED FOR TWO WAY TRANSPORT TO THE PAST AND THE FUTURE UNDER THE RIGHT CONDITIONS.IF THE WORMHOLES ARE CONNECTED TO CERTAIN SPACETIME POINTS THEY CAN BE USED FOR TIME TRAVEL SPACE TRAVEL AND PATHS TO OTHER UNIVERSES.THE EINSTEIN-ROSEN BRIDGE MIGHT EXIST.THIS IS A PORTAL TO ANOTHER UNIVERSE.THEY

HAVE TWO MOUTHS AND CAN BE USED FOR TWO WAY TRANSPORT TO THE PAST AND THE FUTURE.KIP

THORNE THOUGHT UP A WAY OF USING A WORMHOLE WITH MOUTHS

ONLY INCHES AND A FRACTION OF A SECOND APPART AND LENGHTENED

IT TO CREATE A VERY EFFECTIVE TIME MACHINE USING THE TIME DILATION EFFECT.INTERESTING STUFF.KIPS' IDEA INVOLVES KEEPING ONE MOUTH OF THE WORMHOLE ON EARTH AND THE OTHER IN A SPACESHIP TRAVELLING AT A HIGH SPEED.TIME DOES NOT PASS AT THE SAME RATE ON EARTH AND THE SPACESHIP BECAUSE OF THE TIME DILATION EFFECT.THE AMOUNT OF TIME BETWEEN THE MOUTHS THEREFORE CHANGES.LETS SAY TEN YEARS ON EARTH IS ONE YEAR IN THE SPACESHIP.WHAT WOULD YOU SEE IF YOU LOOKED INTO THE MOUTHS?KIP DESCRIBED THAT THINGS WOULD LOOK NORMAL AND YOU COULD TALK TO THE PERSON IF THERE WAS A PERSON AT THE OTHER END.IN MY RESEARCH IF TIME IS BEING DILATED THIS COULD NOT BE CORRECT.KIP MAY BE RIGHT BUT IF HE IS I DON'T UNDERSTAND THE PHYSICS BEHIND PART OF HIS THEORY.IF FROM EARTH RIGHT NOW I THINK YOU WOULD SEE THE EFFECTS OF THE PROCESS OF DILATING TIME.LOOKING THROUGH THE WORMHOLE THE PEOPLE ON BOARD THE SHACESHIP WOULD APPEAR TO BE MOVING ABOUT EXTREMELY FAST WITHOUT MUCH EFFORT.A PERSON TURNING HIS OR HER HEAD QUICKLY TYPING A FULL SCREEN AMOUNT OF WORK IN SECONDS.THE PERSON TYPING CASUALLY LOOKING UP FOR A FRACTION OF A SECOND.RAP MUSIC BEING PLAYED AT A VERY FAST RATE.THIS IS THE EXPERIENCE OF WATCHING THE SPACECRAFT THROUGH THE WORMHOLE FROM EARTH.EVEN IF YOU WATCHED THE SPACECRAFT USING A TELESCOPE INSTEAD YOU WOULD SEE THE EFFECTS OF TIME CHANGING SPEED.IF YOU WERE ON THE SPACECRAFT LOOKING AT EARTH YOU WOULD SEE THE EXACT OPPOSITE.WHAT YOU SEE WOULD BE LIKE SLOW MOTION.PEOPLE TRYING RUN LIKE MAD SEEM TO BE VERY SLOW.YOU SLOWLY TURN TO LOOK AT A COMPUTER.WHEN YOU INPUT DATA ABOUT THE EFFECTS YOU ARE SEEING YOU ARE NOT TYPING VERY FAST AT ALL.YOU TYPE AT A CASUAL SPEED OF ABOUT A LETTER PER SECOND.AFTER ABOUT TEN MINUTES OF TYPING YOU TAKE ANOTHER LOOK AROUNG.YOU PAUSE LOOKING AT THESE EFFECTS IN DEEP THOUGHT.YOU ARE NOT RUSHED AT ALL AND ARE NOT DOING THIS FAST.

[CHAPTER 3]TACHYONS PARTICLES WITH MASS THAT APPROACH THE SPEED OF LIGHT ALSO APPROACH INFINITE MASS AND REQUIRE INFINITE ENERGY TO GET TO LIGHTSPEED.ACCORDING TO ALBERT EINSTEIN THIS IS THE ONLY CONTANT IN THE UNIVERSE IN THE UNIVERSE.EVERYTHING ELSE IS RELATIVE.

IT HAS BEEN SUGGESTED THAT PARTICLES THAT CAN ONLY GO

FASTER THAN LIGHT CAN EXCEED THE SPEED OF LIGHT.

THE EXISTANCE OF TACHYONS HAS NOT YET BEEN PROVEN.NOONE REPORTED FINDING THEM.THEY MIGHT NOT EVEN EXIST

BUT THEY HAVE NOT BEEN PROVED TO BE PURE FICTION EITHER.

THEY ARE NOT RULED OUT BY WORK ON EINSTEINS' THEORY OF GENERAL

RELATIVITY.ALTHOUGH GENERAL RELATIVITY SAYS NOTHING CAN TRAVEL FASTER

THAN LIGHT THE THEORY ONLY SHOWED THAT A PARTICLE OF MASS CANNOT

BREAK THE BARRIER.WHEN AN OBJECT IS OPROACHING LIGHT SPEED IT

TAKES MORE AND MORE ENERGY TO ACCELERATE EVERY BIT FASTER IT GETS

UNTIL IT BECOMES IMPOSSIBLE TO REACH THE SPEED OF LIGHT.THIS HAPPENS

BECAUSE THE OBJECTS MASS IS INCREASING.THIS PROCESS

PREVENTS OBJECTS TRAVELING AT SPEEDS BELOW LIGHT SPEED TO EXCEED THE

SPEED OF LIGHT.OBJECTS THAT CAN ONLY TRAVEL AT BELOW THE SPEED OF

LIGHT ARE CALLED TARDYONS.MANY SCIENTISTS WOULD LIKE TO RULE OUT THE

POSSIBILITY OF ANYTHING ELSE.THE IDEA THAT PARTICLES THAT ALWAYS

TRAVEL FASTER THAN LIGHT HAS BEEN SUGGESTED.SOLUTIONS TO GENERAL

RELATIVITY SAYS THEY MIGHT EXIST.YOU COULD NOT SLOW THEM DOWN TO

THE SPEED OF LIGHT.THEY ARE ALWAYS TRAVELING FASTER THAN LIGHT

AND THEREFORE ACCORDING TO RELATIVITY SOLUTIONS THEY WOULD MOVE

BACKWARDS THROUGH TIME.THEY COULD LEAD TO THE CONSTRUCTION OF A

TIME MACHINE!THEY MIGHT ALLOW US TO TRAVEL BACK TO THE PAST.IF

THESE PARTICLES ARE EVER DISCOVER THEY HAVE COME FROM THE FUTURE.

[CHAPTER 4]BLACK HOLES WHEN A DYING STAR REACHES THE END OF ITS' LIFE IF IT

IS MASSIVE ENOUGH IT WILL COLLAPSE UNDER ITS' OWN GRAVITATIONAL

PULL AND BECOME A BLACK HOLE.NOTHING NOT EVEN LIGHT CAN ESCAPE FROM THE BLACK HOLE. THERE IS STRONG THEORETICAL EVIDENCE SUGGESTING BLACK HOLES ARE NOT JUST SCIENCE FICTION.THEY MAY HAVE BEEN PRODUCED AFTER THE BIG BANG.ALL THAT IS NEEDED TO CREATE A BLACK HOLE IS A MASS OF ANY AMOUNT COMPRESSED TO A SUFFICENT DEGREE.IF A STAR IS LARGE ENOUGH AT THE END OF ITS' LIFE IT WILL BECOME A BLACK HOLE.WHEN IT HAS USED UP ALL ITS' NUCLEAR FUEL IT COLLAPSES UNDER ITS' OWN GRAVITY.THE GRAVITATIONAL FIELD OF THE INTERIOR OF A BLACK HOLE IS VERY STRONG AND IT PULLS THINGS IN.EVEN LIGHT IS DRAGGED TOWARDS THE BLACK HOLE AND CANNOT ESCAPE FROM IT.TACHYONS MAY BE ABLE TO GET INSIDE A BLACK HOLE AND OUT AGAIN BECAUSE THEY TRAVEL FASTER THAN LIGHT.

A LOT OF WORK HAS BEEN DONE ON BLACK HOLES BY PEOPLE SUCH AS STEPHEN HAWKING,ROGER PENROSE AND ALBERT EINSTEIN.STEPHEN SAID THAT BLACK HOLES ARE NOT COMPLETELY BLACK.IT HAS ALSO BEEN SAID THAT THEY HAVE NO HAIR.

A BLACK HOLE IS THOUGHT TO EXIST IN CYGNUS X-1.

THE DANGER

IF YOU GOT NEAR ENOUGH A BLACK HOLE YOU COULD GET SUCKED IN.

IF YOU FELL INTO A BLACK HOLE YOU COULD GET TORN APPART BY EXTREMELY STRONG GRAVITY.IN SOME CASES THIS WOULD BE ENOUGH TO KILL A HUMAN. MASSIVE BLACK HOLES ARE THOUGHT TO BE A LOT SAFER THAN SMALL ONES.LARGE BLACK HOLES HAS WEAKER GRAVITY THAN BIG ONES.YOU WILL STILL BE DRAGGED IN BUT IF THE BLACK HOLE IS LARGE ENOUGH THE GRAVITATIONAL CONDITIONS WOULD NOT BE ENOUGH TO KILL A PERSON.IF YOU DO GET IN WHAT HAPPENS NEXT IS UNKNOWN ALTHOUGH THERE HAVE BEEN THEORIES PUT FORWARD.

ESCAPING FROM A BLACK HOLE

IT IS THOUGHT TO BE A TRAP WITH NO ESCAPE FOR EVEN LIGHT BUT THERE ARE WAYS YOU MIGHT GET OUT.IF YOU AVIOD THE SINGULARITY YOU MIGHT TRAVEL ALONG A TYPE OF TUNNEL AND COME OUT SOMEWHERE ELSE IN SPACE AND TIME!YOU COULD END UP IN THE PAST.AFTER YOU GET SUCKED IN THE BLACK HOLE YOU MIGHT COME OUT OF A WHITE HOLE.THIS IS THE EXACT OPPISITE TO A BLACK HOLE.INSTEAD OF PULLING MATTER IN THE WHITE HOLE PRODUCES IT AND THROWS IT OUT.IT HAS ALSO NOT BEEN PROVEN BY A PHYSICAL EXPERIMENT AND THEREFORE MIGHT NOT EXIST.IF YOU WERE SUCKED INTO A BLACK HOLE SOMEWHERE IN OUR SOLAR SYSTEM YOU MIGHT GET THROWN OUT OF A WHITE HOLE IN A COMPLETELY DIFFERENT SOLAR SYSTEM VERY FAR AWAY.A TYPE OF WORMHOLE WOULD HAVE FORMED IN THIS CASE.THIS COULD BE FASTER THAN LIGHT TRAVELLING THE USUAL ROTE.ACCORDING TO SOLUTIONS OF GENERAL RELATIVITY THIS COULD MEAN TRAVELLING BACK IN TIME!STEPHEN HAWKING WROTE ABOUT THIS.

INFORMATION ON WORMHOLES

THESE ARE CONNECTIONS IN SPACETIME.THE THEORY SAYS THEY ALLOW TWO WAY TRAFFIC.THIS MEANS YOU CAN PASS THROUGH EACH END AND COME OUT THE OTHER END.EACH END OF THE WORMHOLE IS CALLED A MOUTH.EXOTIC MATTER IS NEEDED TO KEEP THE MOUTHS OPEN.THEY PROVIDE ALMOST INSTANCE TRAVEL FROM ONE PLACE TO ANOTHER.THEY MIGHT BE ABLE TO TAKE YOU TO THE OTHER END FASTER THAN IF YOU TRAVELLED AT LIGHTSPEED TAKING THE NORMAL PATH.

COSMIC STRINGSUNDER THE CORRECT CONDITIONS THEY CAN MOVE FASTER THAN LIGHT AND MEAN TRAVELLING BACKWARDS IN TIME.THEY ARE STILL THOUGHT TO BE PURE FICTION.

[CHAPTER 5]GRAVITATIONAL CONDITIONSIN EINSTEINS' GENERAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY

HE PERDICTED THAT GRAVITY AFFECTS TIME. AMAZING THINGS CAN HAPPEN UNDER THE RIGHT GRAVITATIONAL CONDITIONS.

GRAVITY EXISTS BETWEEN ALL MATTER.IT TRIES TO PULL OBJECTS TOGETHER.

THE LARGER THE OBJECTS THE STRONGER THE GRAVITATIONAL PULL BETWEEN

THEM.SPINING ALSO SIMULATES GRAVITY.THIS IS HOW A GRAVITATIONAL

FIELD CAN BE CREATED.

GRAVITY AFFECTS THE SPEED TIME PASSES.IT CAN CHANGE THE SPEED OF TIME

AND IN EXTREME SITUATIONS EVEN CHANGE THE DIRECTION TIME FLOWS.IF

YOU ENTERED A STRONG GRAVITATIONAL FIELD YOU WOULD TRAVEL FASTER TO

THE FUTURE THAN YOU OTHERWISE WOULD HAVE.THESE STRONG GRAVITIONAL

FIELDS EXIST NEAR MASSIVE BODIES IN SPACE FOR EXAMPLE LARGE PLANETS

[sUCH AS JUPITER AND SATURN]OR STARS LIKE OUR SUN.THE GRAVITY OF

THESE BODIES AFFECTS TIME.THE AMOUNT OF TIME

RECORDED TO PASS NEAR THESE BODIES WOULD BE LESS THAN THE AMOUNT OF

TIME RECORDED TO PASS AWAY FROM THESE BODIES IN NORMAL CONDITIONS.IF YOU CLOSED YOUR EYES AND TRAVELLED ON A LIFT YOU MIGHT FEEL A FORCE.THIS COULD BE THE FORCE OF THE MOVEMENT BUT IT ALSO MIGHT BE THE EXPERIENCE OF THE EFFECTS OF GRAVITY.YOU WOULD NOT KNOW FOR CERTAIN WHICH ONE IF YOU KEPT YOUR EYES CLOSED.THIS MEANS GRAVITY IS LIKE MOVEMENT.THEREFORE THE TIME DILATION EFFECT WOULD OCCUR IN GRAVITATIONAL CONDITIONS AS WELL AS HIGH SPEEDS.IN GENERAL RELATIVITY THE IDEA WAS THAT GRAVITY,ENERGY

AND MATTER TELLS SPACETIME HOW TO CURVE AND SPACETIME TELLS

MATTER HOW TO MOVE AND GRAVITY HOW TO ACT.THE THEORY MEANS

THAT GRAVITY IS NOT A FORCE BUT AN ASPECT OF SPACETIME.

[CHAPTER 6]THE EXPANDING UNIVERSE THE UNIVERSE IS SUPPOSED TO BE EXPANDING NOW .SOME SCIENTISTS SAY THIS IS WHY TIME NOW FLOWS FORWARD.THE PHYSICIST STEPHEN HAWKING WROTE IN HIS BEST SELLER BOOK 'A BRIEF HISTORY OF TIME' AND IN 'BLACK HOLES AND BABY UNIVERSES' THAT THE UNIVERSE MAY LATER START CONTRACTING AND EVERYTHING GOES BACKWARDS,EVEN TIME IN THEORY COULD ALSO FLOW BACKWARDS.THIS IDEA WAS SHOWN IN THE SUCESSFUL BBC SCIENCEFICTION SERIES 'RED DRARF ,BACKWARDS'.

THIS UNIVERSE IS EXPANDING.MORE SPACE IS BEING MADE TO STORE THE

HEAT IS THAT IS BEING PRODUCED.SOME

PEOPLE SAY THIS IS THE ARROW OF TIME.SOME TIME IN THE FUTURE THE BODIES IN

SPACE MIGHT PULL ON EACH OTHER AND THE UNIVERSE WOULD START

CONTRACTING.IF THE EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE IS THE ARROW OF TIME

THEN TIME ITSELF WILL RUN BACKWARDS.IF THIS LATER DOES HAPPEN IT

WOULD BE AMAZING TO SEE.THE PROCESS PUPILS WRITING IN EXERCISE BOOKS

BACKWARDS.IT WOULD BE LIKE THEY ARE DELETING ALL THE WRITTEN WORK.

SEEING BURNT ASHES TURN ITSELF INTO EMPTY BOTTLES AND STICKS.PEOPLE

COME BACK FROM DEATH.AFTER THE RAIN EVERYTHING IS DRY.AFTER A

BOMB GOES OFF A LOT OF PEOPLE BECOME ALIVE AGAIN.THE FOLLOWING

PROCESS WOULD OCCUR IN THIS ORDER.A PERSON LYING

DEAD.THEN THAT PERSON IS SHOT.THEN THAT PERSON IS ALIVE AND TRYING

TO AVIOD GETTING SHOT.THEN THAT PERSON IS UNAWARE OF THE MAN WITH

A GUN.THE VICTIM IS NO LONGER TRYING TO GET AWAY.

[CHAPTER 7]ANTI MATTER IT IS THEORISED TO EXIST.FOR EVERY PARTICLE THERE IS AN ANTI PARTICLE.EVERY THING IS DIFFERENT.EVEN THE DIRECTION OF TIME

SHOULD BE CHANGED.RICHARD FEYNMAN SHOWED IN MATHEMATICAL TERMS HOW ANTI-MATTER MOVES BACK THROUGH TIME.

WAVES THAT CAN GO BACK IN TIMERICHARD FEYNMAN SHOWED THAT IT IS POSSIBLE FOR WAVES AND PARTICLES TO TRAVEL BACK IN TIME.THE THEORY CONSISTS OF WAVES IN INTEREFERANCE SHATTERING AND SPLITING.HALF OF THE ENERGY GOES INTO THE FUTURE AND HALF GOES INTO THE PAST.

STEPHEN HAWKINGS' CHRONOLOGY PROTECTION HYPOTHESIS

THIS IS THE IDEA THAT TIME TRAVEL TO THE PAST IS IMPOSSIBLE BECAUSE OF PARADOXES AND NO

TIME TRAVELLERS FROM THE FUTURE.I HAVE WRITTEN ABOUT THE IDEA THAT THE PAST CAN NOT BE CHANGED IN A SCRIPT I WROTE CALLED 'TIME TRAVEL CANNOT SAVE HIM'. SHEPHEN HAWKING HAD AN IDEA THAT

'BLACK HOLES AND BABY UNIVERSES'.

IN 1991 HE DESCRIBED WAYS TIME TRAVEL COULD BE PREVENTED.IN HIS HYPOTHESIS

HE EXPLORED THE POSSIBILITY OF ALL TIME MACHINES BEING DESTROYED AT

THE POINT OF THEIR FORMATION.THE WORMHOLE MAY BE UNSTABLE OR THE

PRESENCE OF A SPACESHIP MAY MAKE IT UNSTABLE AND THEREFORE MAY NOT TAKE

YOU BACK IN TIME.THE WORMHOLE MAY WARP SPACETIME TO THE EXTENT TRAVEL

TO THE PAST WOULD NOT BE POSSIBLE THROUGH IT.

I.E. CHANGES THAT WOULD PERVENT YOUR EXISTANCE INVOLVED

WITH GOING BACK TO THE PAST.HE MEANTIONED

THAT IN HIS OWN WORDS 'WE

HAVE NOT BEEN INVADED BY HORDS OF TOURISTS FROM THE FUTURE.HE MEANT

IF TIME TRAVEL IS GOING TO BECOME POSSIBLE TIME TRAVELLERS FROM THE

FUTURE WOULD BE HERE NOW.IF IT BECAME POPULAR WHY WOULD WE NOT SEE

PEOPLE FROM THE FUTURE HERE NOW.A LOT OF PEOPLE MIGHT WANT TO BE HERE

NOW BECAUSE OF THE YEAR 2000 COMING UP.WHILE THIS TOPIC WAS BEING

DISCUSSED THE QUESTION 'HOW DO YOU KNOW PEOPLE HAVEN'T CAME BACK FROM THE

FUTURE?' WAS PUT FORWARD.WAS PUT FORWARD.MAYBE WE HAVE MET TIME TRAVELLERS

WITHOUT KNOWING IT!LIKE SOME PASSER-BY YOU MET LAST WEEK COULD HAVE

BEEN FROM ANOTHER POINT IN TIME.THAT PASSER-BY MIGHT EVEN HAVE BEEN YOU

FROM DECADES IN THE FUTURE!IF THIS IS THE CASE WHY WOULD PEOPLE NOT ADMIT

TO BEING TIME TRAVELLERS?THEY MIGHT THINK NOONE WOULD BELIEVE THERE STORY.

SOMETHING ACCEPTED IN PHYSICS NOW MIGHT BE WRONG AND THEY MIGHT KNOW ABOUT IT.

THEY THEREFORE MIGHT THINK THAT WE COULD NOT UNDERSTAND THE REAL PHYSICS FOR THIS WORLD.

AS A MATTER OF FACT THERE HAS BEEN CLAIMS OF SUCESSFUL TIME TRAVEL!

ACCORDING TO AN ANOYAMUS E-MAIL ON AN INTERNET WEB PAGE

A GUY ON THE RADIO CLAIMED TO BE A PERSON FROM AREA 51 AND SAID HE WAS FROM

THE YEAR 2050.HE MADE PREDICTIONS ABOUT THE FUTURE IN THE YEAR 1997.HE SAID

THAT THERE WOULD BE A FLOOD IN LOS ANGLEUS IN MARCH 1998.HE ALSO SAID

THAT THERE WOULD BE A GREAT EARTH QUAKE IN LOS ANGLEUS IN THE WINTER OF 1999.THERE HAS BEEN A LOT OF RECORDED INCIDENTS IN WHICH PEOPLE HAVE SAID THEY HAVE SLIPPED ACROSS TIME.WORMHOLES MIGHT EXIST TO ALLOW PEOPLE TO TRAVEL ACROSS TIME.A PERSON SAID HE VISITED THE FUTURE.ANOTHER PERSON CLAIMED TO HAVE WENT BACK IN TIME.BOOKS HAS BEEN WRITTEN THAT RECORD THESE EXPERIENCES.THESE CASES HAVE BEEN CALLED TIME SLIPS.

I LOVE THE ACTION IN THE TERMINATOR FILMS.THE TWO FILMS ALSO ADDRESS PARADOXES WITH TIME TRAVEL.

IN THE FIRST FILM KYLE REESE TELLS SARAH A MESSAGE FROM JOHN.I.E. JOHN TOLD KYLE IN THE FUTURE.IT IS 'THANK YOU SARSH FOR YOUR COURAGE THROUGH THE DARK YEARS.I CANNOT HELP YOU WITH WHAT YOU MUST SOON FACE EXCEPT TO SAY THAT THE FUTURE IS NOT SET.YOU MUST BE STRONG SARAH,STRONGER THAN YOU EVER IMAGINED YOU CAN BE.YOU MUST SURVIVE OR I WILL NEVER EXIST.'SARAH REMEMBERS IT AND YEARS LATER TELLS JOHN.AFTER DECADES PASS JOHN TELLS KYLE THE MESSAGE BEFORE HE TRAVELS BACK IN TIME.WHO THOUGHT UP THE MESSAGE?HAS IT JUST SOMEHOW MANAGED TO COME INTO EXISTANCE?ACCORDING TO CLASSICAL PHYSICS THIS IS A CLASSICAL PARADOX.JOHN,KYLE AND SARAH CARRY THE MESSAGE ON.NONE OF THEM THOUGHT IT UP.

THE PARADOX OF THE EXISTANCE OF SKY-NET

WHEN THE COMPUTER CHIP AND ARM WERE FOUND IN THE FACTORY THE COMPANY DECIDED TO COVER IT UP.THEY SENT IT TO BE WORKED ON.IT WAS SMASHED BUT IT PRODUCED IDEAS.

DYSON RELISED IT WAS VERY ADVANCED.AFER A LOT OF WORK HIS COMPUTER DECAME SELF AWARE.THIS WAS NOT THE COMPUTER CHIP FOUND ITSELF BUT DYSON STILL NEEDED HELP FROM THE FUTURE IN ORDER TO BUILD SKY-NET.THE HELP FROM THE FUTURE WAS A REVIEW OF HIS OWN WORK.THIS LEADS TO A SIMULAR CONTRADICTION AS THE MESSAGE PARADOX.MATTER COMING INTO EXISTANCE WITHOUT NEEDING TO BE CREATED.

ERASING THE PAST

I DO NOT THINK CHANGING THE PAST IS POSSIBLE.IF WE COULD GO BACK IN TIME AND PREVENT OUR OWN EXISTANCE WE WOULD NOT HAVE EXISTED IN THE FIRST PLACE.HOW COULD YOU DO ANYTHING I.E. ERASE YOUR OWN EXISTANCE IF YOU WERE NEVER BORN?THIS DOES NOT MEAN TIME TRAVEL IS IMPOSSIBLE.YOU MAY NOT BE ABLE TO CHANGE THE PAST EVEN IF YOU COULD GO BACK IN TIME.ALL TIME AND SPACE MIGHT BE SET IN A FOUR DIMENTIONAL SPACETIME GEOMETRY.IF YOU APPEAR TO CHANGE THE PAST YOU COULD BE GOING DOWN A TREE-LIKE DIAGRAM AND ENTERING ANOTHER UNIVERSE.

THE PARADOX OF SKY-NET NEVER EXISTING

A SCRIPT WRITTER NAMED DANIEL PEARSE OF ANOTHER TERMINATOR FILM SPOTTED A PARADOX IN THIS.ACCORDING TO HIM IF SKY-NET NEVER EXISTS THEN JOHN CONNER CAN NOT EXIST IN HIS PRESENT FORM.THIS IS BECAUSE KYLE NEVER TRAVELS BACK IN TIME TO BE JOHNS' FATHER.HE ALSO SAID THAT SARAH AND JOHNS' MEMORIES OF THE MACHINES SHOULD BE ERASED ACCORDING TO THE THEORY.LETS THINK ABOUT THIS.WE SEEN THE DARK FUTURE IN THE TWO FILMS SO IT MUST HAVE HAPPENED SOMEWHERE,MAYBE ANOTHER UNIVERSE.NOW THAT SARAH AND JOHN HAS PREVENTED THIS FROM HAPPENING THE WORLD CAN GO UP AN ALTERNATE BRANCH AND AVOID THE NUCLEAR WAR.ACCORDING TO QUANTUM PHYSICS THE WORLD IS SPILITING INTO DIFFERENT BRANCHES ALL THE TIME.IN 'THE TERMINATOR' KYLE SAID HE CAME FROM ONE POSSIBLE FUTURE.HE ALSO SAID IN THE MESSAGE THE FUTURE IS NOT SET.MAYBE JOHN AND THE MEMORIES OF THE NIGHTMARE ARE LEFT BEHIND THE INSANE WORLD THAT IS STILL IN EXISTANCE BUT IN ANOTHER UNIVERSE.

I ENJOYED THE BACK TO THE FUTURE MOVIES.IN THE SECOND FILM SCENES FROM THE FIRST FILM ARE RESEEN.TECHNOLOGY CALLED BLUE SCREEN IS USED TO COMBINE IMAGES.IT IS HOW DOCTOR EMMET BROWN COULD BE SEEN TO MEET HIMSELF.

INTRODUCING THE CONTERDICTIONS INVOLVED WITH TRAVELLING BACKWARDS THROUGH TIME

TIMETRAVEL CONTERDICTIONS

The most obious example of a paradox is probably a person who travels

back in time and kills his/her grandmother.If they could do this they wouldn't

have existed to do it.The grandmother must therefore survive deing murdered

by someone who doesn't exist.But if this happens then the timetraveller

is born and is free to go back and kill his/her grandmother.All we can say

is that a situation exackly the same as this is impossible to occur.Theories

have been put forward to prevent a paradox and allow timetravel.Entering parallel

universes and simply not being able to change the past were meantioned.

In The terminater the speech Kyle memerised from John to tell Sarah is

another kind of paradox if we assume that the universe Kyle is the same or

at least the message of the speech gets through to his original universe.

Kyle goes back in time tells Sarah the speech,then she later tells John

who gave Kyle the speech in the first place!Noone actually writes the speach.

John passed it on to Kyle,Kyle to Sarah and Sarah to John.

Imagine in 2005 that a company who built a time machine wrote an

account of how it was done.Then they go back in time to explore

the past.David,a scientist who travelled back in time gave his

younger self the designs.The young David then spends years designing

the time machine.The events got through to old Davids'original universe.

The designs weren't written dy David.They weren't written written by

any company.David gave the company the designs.The company later

allowed David to get the designs.Noone wrote the designs so how do

they exist?Noone invented timetravel so how is it possible?According

to classical physics this is a classical paradox and cannot occur in

reality.Every event must have a cause,but if this is correct then how

did the universe get created?Did it involve timetravel?Did it depend in

the existance of a future event.It maywell have!

Imagine that timetravel is already possible.A team of scientist create

an infinite timewarp which takes them back to the very beginning of

time.Travelling at the speed of light[with time stoped completly]

it takes them no time at all to create matter and time.This therefore

causes the big bang.This means future events already exist.There is

no direct counterdiction.We can't prove that future events don't exist.

If you say you are going to change the future by not commiting a crime

and therefore not facing a trail then not commiting a crime is what

you future was in the first place.You haven't

changed the future!

The film is about two teenagers who need to pass an important history

exam.To help with this project a person from the future called Rufus

takes them on trips through time.Ted decides to steal his dads jail keys,

record his voice and set things up when he's got more time later.At the start all he knows is that his dads keys went missing so he plans to go back to a time when he did have them and steal them then.He relises that he had already in the future stolen the keys and that is the reason they went missing in the first place!He

doesn't have to wait to get the keys he just knows where he'll leave them

after later travelling back in time.This works in the film.According to

the story line future events exist and timetravel can mean it having effects on the present and the past.

DID YOU KNOW:

*That time-travel to the future is possible using velocity(speed) or gravitation(as originally predicted by Einstein's special and general theories of relativity).

*That Albert Einstein (considered the greatest scientist since Newton) theorised in relativity that time passes at different rates.

*That in the 1980s physicists relised that there is no simple way to exclude time-travel to the past as a possibility.

*That serious physicists such as Stephen Hawking (who previously thought backwards time-travel would always be impossible) changed his mind to believe it could happen!

ALTERING THE COURSE OF HISTORY

Find out why theoretical physicists think changing the past is impossible.

Travelling back in time now becomes very confusing when you are twenty.

The moment you are in the past you seem to have control over what you allow and don't allow to happen. You might be able to approach your younger self and tell him all the mistakes you will or have made.

In an accident you might give your teenage self bad advise. You might cause a chain reaction of events that make youself get badly bullied. Suppose you advise yourself to just ignore it instead of asking for help and having it stopped. You look back on your childhood as if you know and remember everything about it. But of course if you are making changes this is no longer the same as your youth. The timeline has split and you are going up a different root in time.

The point is you don't know what like for your younger self. The pain! Other pupils mocking him every day. This could lead him to his grave. At sixteen unable to take it any longer you might commit sucide. This means you are dead before you are able to go back in time! You don't get the chance to go back in time. You never go back and meet yourself and never give any advice good or bad. You do not affect history...

The General Theory Of Relativity(by Albert Einstein)

According to this theory moving fast is not the only factor that affects time. Gravity also slows down time. Gravity tells space-time how to curve. In strong gravitational fields time is dilated. The gravitational field of the earth puts a dent in space-time.

Chronovisor Sources

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